Workshop on new emission measurement methods
Expert workshop on
Practical test methods for small-scale biomass combustion devices
Thursday 19 January 2017
This workshop took place as part of the Central European Biomass Conference
With existing test methods for biomass boilers and stoves, the emissions are tested under stationary and optimal test conditions. Under practical circumstances however, emissions may be significantly higher, e.g. during cold startup or while operating under partload. This implies that the emissions measured during type approval do not neccessarily reflect actual emissions in the field and may be significantly underestimated.
In order to obtain a result during emission testing that better represents practical conditions, it is therefore desired to modify existing standards to reflect better how the devices are actually used in practise.
Task 32 organised this workshop to present an overview of existing emission measurement standards, and evaluate the new method that was proposed in the framework of the BEREAL project. The presentations can be downloaded from below.
The workshop showed that the new load cycle methods that have been developed for logwood stoves and pellet boilers in the framework of recent research programmes, better reflect real life emissions than actual test methods. It was therefore concluded that efforts should be made together with industry and national governments, to introduce such methods.
Agenda and presentations
|13:30||Welcome & Introduction,
Jaap Koppejan, Procede Biomass BV, Netherlands,
Hans Hartmann, TFZ Straubing, Germany,
Christoph Schmidl, Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Austria
|Session 1:||The „beReal“ project|
|13:40||The firewood method, Marius Wöhler, HFR Rottenburg, Germany
The novel test approach for firewood stoves comprises a total heating cycle with ignition, different batch loads and cooling down phase. Key findings of long-term field tests and a user survey were implemented in the method. Field and Round-Robin tests confirmed the real-life relevance and reproducibility of the method.
|14:00||The pellet method, Hans Hartmann, TFZ Straubing, Germany
A test cycle was defined based on long-term field monitoring data showing that pellet stoves are frequently operated under part-load conditions with several starts per day. Consequently the novel test method includes start-up phases, different load settings and load changes.
|14:20||Scientific highlights, Gabriel Reichert, Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Austria
Highlights of the development and validation process of the beReal methods were presented. The influence of draught conditions, ignition technique and cooling-down phase on emissions and thermal efficiency were shown. For pellet stoves, the fuel influence and the effect of cleaning intervals were presented.
|14:40||Labelling concept, Christoph Schmidl, Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Austria
In the beReal labeling approach emission parameters are combined with efficiency values to calculate an evaluation parameter. The beReal label is issued if a benchmark of emissions and efficiency is reached. Furthermore a concept for the label application procedure and market surveillance was presented.
|Session 2:||Current method developments|
|15:40||Current developments of US testing protocols, Lisa Rector, NESCAUM, United States of America
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently preparing the implementation of new test methods for residential wood heaters using cordwood. To inform this effort, NESCAUM along with other regional and state agencies is leading a process that will provide formal recommendations to EPA on cordwood testing. The workgroup chairs presented information on this effort and discussed opportunities for collaboration.
|16:00||The EN-PME method, Michael Sattler, Ökozentrum Langenbruck, Switzerland
A new method for the determination of particulate emissions from domestic biomass firing systems has been developed. The method is based on a gravimetric filter measurement combined with a hydrocarbon measurement. A homogeneous temperature distribution in the sampling unit and non-isokinetic suction are main points of the new method. In comparative tests, the new method was successfully validated.
|16:20||Load cycle test for biomass boilers, Elisa Carlon and Markus Schwarz, Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH, Austria
A new dynamic test method to determine annual efficiency and emission factors of small-scale biomass boilers on test stand was presented. It includes all phases of the boiler operation and therefore is a reliable instrument to characterize the boiler performance under realistic operating conditions. The method was validated by field measuring data of pellet boilers installed in residential buildings in several EU countries.
|16:40||Emissions of small-scale pellet boilers, Lukas Sulzbacher, Josephinum Research, Austria
Environmental standards for biomass combustion systems are continuously tightened. Modern low emission technologies often require fuels at high quality. The influence of fuel quality and other influencing variables such as operating and maintenance conditions on the formation of emissions in biomass boilers was shown.